the experiment, learning the relevant techniques, setting up and troubleshooting principal types of detectors used in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices. The first € price and the £ and $ price are net prices, subject to local VAT. Prices indicated with * include VAT for books; the €(D) includes 7% for. Germany, the.
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Techniques for Nuclear and Particle. Physics Experiments. A How-to Approach. Second Revised Edition. With Figures, 40 Tables and Numerous Worked. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments. 1. Particles (N^cit*j pbysics)-Techaique. 2. Particles (Nuclear physicsJ-Erpcrimcnu. 3. Nuclear physics-. I have been teaching courses on experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics to master students in physics and in engineering for many years.
But a more accurate position is obtained knowing the time the electrons took to drift to the wire, hence the name drift chamber. This system. Charged-particle tracking detectors are often immersed in a magnetic field in order to make it possible, from measurements of the track curvatures, to determine the signs of the charges and the momenta of the particles.
Magnetic fields in the range of several kilogauss to several tens of kilogauss are used. The larger the field, the more the tracks curve, and the easier it is to measure the track momentum. To provide the highest possible magnetic fields, it is desirable to use superconducting coils to carry the required large currents. Although a number of these coils have been constructed and successfully oper- ated, the technology of fabrication is demanding, and further research is desirable.
Next in sequence beyond the tracking chamber there may be a detector layer that is used to identify the nature of the charged particles whether they are electrons protons, pions, kaons, or muons.
This region is still required to be nondestructive and thus to contain little material. A number of identification methods have been tested on small-scale devices and are under development for the next generation of detectors.
This technique makes use of the property that particles produce light at an angle that depends on the velocity with which they are traveling through trans- parent matter. This radiation can be focused to a ring image whose radius directly measures the particle velocity. Counters photoconvert this ultraviolet radiation into ionization, which is then detected with proportional-counting techniques.
This technique has been demon- strated successfully on a moderate scale but still requires considerable development to make it viable for large-scale detection.
Calorimetric Detection and Energy Measurement The detection systems described so far do not serve to detect neutral particles, such as photons and neutrons, nor would they permit a precise measurement of the total energy in an event. The final layers of a collider detector therefore comprise thick, highly instrumented blocks of material calorimeters in which electromagnetic and hadronic particles cascade and convert their energy into ionization. These final instrumented blocks are placed at large radii, away from the point at which the beams interact, to leave sufficient space in which to insert the nondestructive low-density systems.
The large radii of these blocks, coupled with the requirement of substantial thicknesses, result in calorimeters that are massive objects. However, such active calorimeters for collider detectors would with present technology, be prohibitively expensive.
It is still very desirable to construct at least the electromag- netic calorimeter out of active material. Some of the materials under development, or in use, for electromagnetic calorimetry are heavy glasses, bismuth germanate crystals, and barium fluoride crystals.
These systems are still costly, and their use at present is only made possible by leaving less space for the low-density systems in order to minimize the material requirements. Further developments in the production of comparatively low-cost materials for use in electromag- netic calorimeters would be useful.
Even with substantial advances, however, most electromagnetic calorimeters and all hadronic calorimeters are likely to continue to rely on the introduction of many active sampling layers interspersed throughout the large passive calorimeter block in order to measure the ionization produced.
Another design goal that is important but hard to realize is a finely divided calorimeter that is able to provide precise locations of the deposited energy.
This requirement follows from the fact that the particles emitted from events in high-energy colliders are tightly bunched into jets. This fine division or segmentation typically may require the recording of information from many hundreds or thousands of electronic channels reading out the information from the individual cells.
Since we cannot do justice here to the range and variety of these detectors, we will only give several examples. The examples can be brief because the components of these detectors are in general just the same elements that we have been describing. The major exception is the bubble chamber, which is discussed at the end of this section.
Small or Simple Fixed-Target Experiments Fixed-target experiments can sometimes be carried out with small or simple particle-detection equipment. This is often the case when the physicist is studying a simple reaction of elementary particles or studying one particular property of a particle.
The neutral pion decays to two photons a, and A,. The apparatus is relatively small and primarily uses two electromagnetic calorimeters.
Figure 6. The detector is of moderately large size but simple construction; its function is to detect neutrinos and to distinguish between muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos. It is intended primarily for studying the production of charmed particles.
A photon beam produced by the primary proton beam strikes a liquid hydrogen target. Recoiling protons are identified by the recoil detector. The spectrometer has magnetic analysis to measure charged-particle momenta; Cerenkov counters to identify pions.
This sequence of analysis steps is the same as that used in most collider detectors, but the target is not surrounded by all the components of the detector as it is in a collider detector. A nuclear emulsion is a thick photographic emulsion that when developed shows the paths of charged particles that have passed through it.
This detector was used at Fermilab to measure the lifetimes of charmed mesons. The emulsion gave precise pictures of how the mesons decayed close to their production point.
Bubble Chamber The bubble chamber, invented in the s, was for many years the workhorse of elementary-particle physics experiments. A bubble chamber uses a superheated liquid, such as liquid hydrogen, neon, or Freon. In practice, even if "particle physics" is taken to mean only "high-energy atom smashers", many technologies have been developed during these pioneering investigations that later find wide uses in society.
Particle accelerators are used to produce medical isotopes for research and treatment for example, isotopes used in PET imaging , or used directly in external beam radiotherapy. The development of superconductors has been pushed forward by their use in particle physics.
Additional applications are found in medicine, national security, industry, computing, science, and workforce development, illustrating a long and growing list of beneficial practical applications with contributions from particle physics. There are several powerful experimental reasons to expect new physics, including dark matter and neutrino mass. There are also theoretical hints that this new physics should be found at accessible energy scales.
Much of the effort to find this new physics are focused on new collider experiments. The Large Hadron Collider LHC was completed in to help continue the search for the Higgs boson , supersymmetric particles , and other new physics. An intermediate goal is the construction of the International Linear Collider ILC , which will complement the LHC by allowing more precise measurements of the properties of newly found particles.
In August , a decision for the technology of the ILC was taken but the site has still to be agreed upon. In addition, there are important non-collider experiments that also attempt to find and understand physics beyond the Standard Model.
One important non-collider effort is the determination of the neutrino masses, since these masses may arise from neutrinos mixing with very heavy particles. In addition, cosmological observations provide many useful constraints on the dark matter, although it may be impossible to determine the exact nature of the dark matter without the colliders. For your reference, the slides of a radiation safety lecture are made available.
For a more detailed introduction see this publication on Geiger tube theory from Centronic. A comprehensive discussion of photomultiplier tube theory, design, and application can be found in the classic RCA Photomultiplier Manual , freely available as a scanned file in various formats and from many sources. The Hamamatsu manual Photomultiplier Tubes Basics and Applications is an even more extensive resource on photomultipliers, scintillators, and applications that can be consulted whenever more details on photomultiplier operation are desired.
A briefer introduction is available in the Wikipedia entry on photomultiplier. Document AN34 - Experiments in Nuclear Science , which can be downloaded from the ORTEC library hard copies of earlier editions are available in the labs , has descriptions of slightly different versions of several of the experiments performed in this class, with explanations of the equipment and methods.
In particular, a description of the operation and characteristics of NaI Tl gamma-ray detectors and an explanation for the different features of the pulse-height energy spectra obtained with such detectors is given in Experiment 3 Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Using NaI Tl , Section 3.
See also pp. Consult the class handouts for details on the actual experiments to be performed. A clickable index starts on page This resource also lists lifetimes and decay schemes.
The catalog can also be searched for individual isotopes using the periodic table format or in alphabetical order from which pages for a single isotope can be downloaded.